Lakes and rivers of Karelia
The image of Karelia is connected first of all with the territory of blue lakes. Actually, there are a lot of lakes – over 61 thousand. Their quantity falling to 1 thousand sq. km region of Karelia confidently wins first place not only in Russia but also among regions of the world.
Lakes are very different in size varying from small lakes of lambesc (“was”), private and anonymous, until the largest in Europe Ladoga and lake Onega. The lake, which area is up to 1 sq. km. prevail, but there are many large lakes, which area is up to 10 or more sq. km. and 20 lakes exceed 100 sq. km Area is covered by lakes in Karelia makes 11.4% of its entire territory, which is clearly more than in the neighbouring state of Finland, and almost twice as much than in the region of Murmansk.
Many lakes take the beginning of tectonic movements of the terrestrial crust, but most appeared due to the ploughing of the earth’s crust by glaciers during the movement many millions of years ago. First deeper, they usually extended shape, have high rocky and often very steep banks and there are not enough Islands. The configuration of glacial lakes began more different – they discerned many Islands, bays, passageways and pretty little depth. However, very often lakes have mixed the beginning and it brings more color in their form.
Deepest lake in Karelia – the Ladoga: gives the maximum depth of 260 meters. Lake Onego is significantly smaller – 126 meters, as well as such large lakes, as Syamozero – 97 meters, and Topozero 56 meters. And these giant lakes are accompanied by a small, in comparison with them, typically tectonic lake paanajärvi expanded like a narrow tape (1.5 km in width and 24 km in length) in the hills North-West of Karelia. Depth of 131 m. This is a lake Baikal in the Republic of Karelia.
The depth of many lakes are in the range of 20-50 meters. However, there are also quite a large lake as Ondozero in the middle Karelia, which depth does not exceed 10 m.
The shores of Karelian lakes are very picturesque. More often they are covered with boulders, quite often they are rocky, and those rocks are or high and steep, or flat, iron glacier that bears the name “barnie foreheads”. Sometimes coastal form – cashed Golden strips of sandy beaches or dark brown rocks. There are very few open shores, the lake is usually transverse with zaroski trees banks, the rich earth, berries and mushrooms.
Large lakes linked by canals, small and large rivers. There are lots of them in Karelia – about 27 thousand, their total length is 83 thousand km. So is the fact that the rivers of Karelia are mainly short. The length of most of them does not exceed 10 km and the long – Vyg, Suna, Kem, Kovda, Vodla, Shuja extends to 260 – 360 kilometers.
A characteristic feature of the rivers of Karelia is often a alternation of river and lake beds. The proportion of lakes in the total length of the rivers can change in very wide limits – from 0 up to 90%, but more often from 6 up to 50%. In fact, they are not rivers in the standard sense, but a lake-river systems typical for Karelia and it is not endemic to other regions of Russia.
Rather small length of the rivers of Karelia in combination with significant difference of heights of sources and estuaries causes a large deviation. On average, the Delta of the river about 1 m. at 1 km and the rapids are up to 3-5 m at 1 km In almost all the fall of water level made in numerous natural obstacles – thresholds, cracks, cavities, and fall between which there is pleskova areas or lakes.
Rich and a number of obstacles in the channels of rivers in combination with a large number of latest and the different degree of water content and difficulty in the passage makes the rivers of the Karelian dream of water tourists. It is difficult should not choose the route of any complexity. The river Shuya, the Vodla, Suna, Onda, Chirka-Kem, Vidlitsa, Kuzema, Pongoma and many others gaining popularity among the rafters.
Some of the obstacles in the rivers are not passable when the water level is high. Should you need to transfer them to shore, thus familiarity with the route or the advice of local residents is always required.
Special interest in tourists is caused by the waterfalls of Karelia. They are very different and quite numerous and very beautiful, but only Kivach in Derzhavin’s verses: – “scattered diamond.” got its popularity. Height – 10.7 metres. Meanwhile, there are waterfalls in Karelia in 2 times above. These include the Bolshoi Padun (18 M.) on the winch; White bridges (19 m) on the river Calismalari; IPC (13.5 m.) on the Vuonninen; Kivakka (12 m.) in Olanga river. There are many waterfalls all the same higher than Kivach, but they are less sung. You can admire them for hours.
Hydrographic snapshot” Karelia – complemented by serious White sea is a unique inland sea of Russia. It has its own appeal, fauna, since even whales are found in it, unique Islands and rich history. Here world famous Solovki island is also an archipelago Mazovetski with its mysterious labyrinths and numerous Cairns on the summit of the mountains of the Islands still awaiting glory.
Island Kizhi on Onega and Valaam on lake Ladoga known all over the world. The special charm is made by Northern shores of these lakes. It is an alternation of mighty cliffs, hundreds of Islands, twisting passages and bays.
All this attracts tourists.
Many tend to swim in lakes or sea in rickety boats and even rafts. Thus, tourists run the risk of fatally, because the storms here quite often and can occur unexpectedly.