The Lake: features and types. Lakes of the world, their depth
Lake, its characteristics
The lake — a reservoir formed on the land surface in the natural depression. As the lake has no direct connection with the ocean, it is — the pond to slow water exchange.
The total area of lakes on earth — about 2.7 million km 3. that is 1.8 % of the land surface.
The main characteristics of the lake:
the area of the lake – water surface area;
length of coastline – length of the water’s edge;
the length of the lake – the shortest distance between the two furthest apart points of the coastline, the average width — the ratio of area to length;
lake volume – the volume of the basin filled with water;
average depth – the ratio of water mass to the area;
maximum depth is a direct measurement.
The biggest area of water surface of a lake on Earth — Caspian (376 thousand km2 when water level is 28 m) and the deepest-Baikal (1620 m).
Characteristics of the largest lakes in the world are given in table. 1.
In every lake there are three interrelated components: basin, water mass, vegetation and fauna of the reservoir.
Lakes of the world
On the status of the lake basin the lake is divided into surface and underground. The latter sometimes filled with juvenile water. The number of underground lakes may be classified, and under-ice lake in Antarctica.
The lake basin may be endogenous . and exogenous origin that the most significant impact on their size, shape, water regime.
The largest lake basins of tectonic origin. They can be located in tectonic depressions (Ilmen), in foothill and intermountain depressions, grabens (Baikal, Nyasa, Tanganyika). Most of the major lake basin has a complex tectonic origin, in their education are involved in both explosive and folded motion (Issyk-Kul, Balkhash, Victoria, etc.). All tectonic lakes are large in size, and most — and the considerable depths, and steep rocky slopes. Denisa of many deep lakes lie below the sea level, and the mirror oxen — above the level. In the location of tectonic lakes are observed certain regularities: they are concentrated along faults or rift zones (the Syrian-African, Baikal) or frame yesterday: along the Canadian shita is located the Great bear lake, Great Slave, Great North Americanskis lakes, along the Baltic shield — Onega, Ladoga, etc.